International Workplace Bullying Research


Updated Feb. 15, 2012


The Phenomenon: International Origins



  Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Heinz Leymann. Violence & Victims, 1990, 5(2), 119-126.
The seminal English-language article that launched the movement!
  The content and development of mobbing at work. H. Leymann. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 165-184.
  Destructive conflict and bullying at work. H. Hoel & C.L. Cooper. University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, 2000.
  Bullying in the workplace: Recent trends in research and practice--an introduction. D. Zapf & S. Einarsen. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2001, 10(4), 369-373.
  The nature and causes of bullying at work. S. Einarsen. International Journal of Manpower, 1999, 20(1/2), 16-27.
  Bullying at work: An introduction to the symposium. A.P.D. Liefooghe. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 2004, 32(3), 265-267.


Definitions, Prevalence



  The 2010 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey. G. Namie.
  The 2007 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey. G. Namie.
  Insight into ill treatment in the British workplace: Patterns, causes and solutions. 2011 National Study. R. Fevre, D. Lewis, A. Robinson & T. Jones. Economic & Social Research Council.
  Emotional abuse in the workplace: Conceptual and empirical issues. L. Keashly. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1998, 1(1), 85-117.
  Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: Prevalence and mental health correlates. J.A. Richman, K.M. Rospenda, & S. Nawyn, et al. American Journal of Public Health, 1999, 89(3), 358-363.
  Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: Results from a national study. K. Rospenda, J.A. Richman & C.A. Shannon. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2009, 24, 819-843.
  The significance of organizational factors for the incidence of bullying. M. Agervold. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2009, 50(3), 267-276.
  Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. G. Namie. Ivey Business Journal, 2003, 68(2), 1-6.
  Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying. P. Saunders, A. Huynh & J. Goodman-Delahunty. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2007, 30, 340-354.
  The relative impact of workplace bullying as a social stressor at work. L.J. Hauge, A. Skogstad, & S. Einarsen. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2010.
  Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. L.M. Cortina. Academy of Management Review, 2008, 33(1), 55-75.
   The communicative constitution of workplace bullying. Abstract of the paper presented at the Work, Stress & Health Conference, Washington, DC
   Take this job and ... : Quitting and other forms of resistance to workplace bullying. P. Lutgen-Sandvick. Communication Monographs, 2006, 73(4), 406-433.
   Abusive behavior in the workplace: A preliminary investigation. L. Keashly, V. Trott & L.M. MacLean. Violence and Victims, 1994, 9(4), 341-357.
  Racial/Ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the U.S. workplace. S. Fox & L.E. Stallworth. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2004, 66, 438-456.


Cross-Cultural Comparisons



  Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception,degree, and impact. P.Lutgen-Sandvik, S.J. Tracy and J.K. Alberts.Journal of Management Studies, 2007, 44 (6), 837-862.
  Bullying in New Zealand: Comparing NAQ findings to European and USA studies. A. Thirwall & J.M. Haar. New Zealand Journal of Human Resources Management, 2010, 99, 302-310.


Women & Bullying



  Conceptualizations of workplace bullying: Gendered rather than gender neutral? J. Escartin, D. Salin & A. Rodriguez-Carballeira.Journal of Personnel Psychology, 2011, 10(4), 157-165.
  School bullying perpetration and other childhood risk factors as predictors of adult intimate partner violence perpetration. K.L. Falb, H.L. McCauley, M.R. Decker, J. Gupta, A. Raj & J.G. Silverman. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 2011.
  Women and violence at work. Dublin, Ireland.European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007.
  When the wrong woman wins: Building bullies and perpetuating patriarch. P. Brunner & M.L. Costello. Advancing Women in Leadership, 2003, 13, 1-9.
  Victimized twice -- The intersection of domestic violence and the workplace: Legal reform through curriculum development. L.B. Vaughn. Loyola Law Review, 2001, 47, 231-253.
  Power between women in organizations. J. Onyx. Feminism & Psychology,1999, 9(4), 417-421.
  The power in democracy: Women's social constructions of gender identity at work. R.J. Ely. Academy of Management Journal, 1995, 38 (3), 589-634.
  Should women managers have to act like men? K. Korabik & R. Ayman. Journal of Management Development,1989, 8(6), 23-32.


About Perpetrators



  Report on Abusive Workplaces, 2003. Workplace Bullying Institute. (see p. 6)
  When the boss feels inadequate: Power, incompetence, and aggression. N. Fast & S. Chen. Psychological Science, 2009.
  Childhood bullies and victims and their risk of criminality in late adolescence. A. Sourander, et al. Archives Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 2007, 161, 546-552.
  The fallout from abusive supervision: An examination of subordinates and their partners. D.S. Carlson, et al. Personnel Psychology, 2011, 64, 937-961.
  The prevalence of destructive leadership behaviour. M.S. Aasland, et al. British Journal of Management, 2010, 21, 438-452.
  The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments. A. Padilla, R. Hogan & R.B. Kaiser. The Leadership Quarterly, 2007, 18(3), 176-194.
  Reflections on the Stanford prison experiment: Genesis, transformations, consequences. P.G, Zimbardo, C. Maslach & C. Haney. In Obedience to Authority. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000
  Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. S. Einarsen, M.S. Aasland & A. Skogstad. The Leadership Quarterly, 2007, 18(3), 207-216.
  Leadership styles as predictors of self-reported and observed workplace bullying. H. Hoel, L. Glaso, J. Hetland, C.L. Cooper & S. Einarsen. British Journal of Management, 2010, 21, 453-468.
  The corporate psychopaths theory of the global financial crisis. C.R. Boddy. Journal of Business Ethics, 2011.
  The influence of corporate psychopaths on corporate responsibility and organizational commitment to employees. C.R. Boddy, R.K. Ladyshewsky & P. Galvin. Journal of Business Ethics, 2010, 97, 1-19.
  Predictors of abusive supervision: Supervisor perceptions of deep-level dissimilarity, relationship conflict, and subordinate performance. B.J. Tepper, S.E. Moss & M.K. Duffy. Academy of Management Journal, 2011, 54(2), 279-294.
  The effect on ambulatory blood pressure of working under favorably and unfavorably perceived supervisors. N. Wager, G. Fieldman, & T. Hussey. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 2003, 60, 468-474.
  Consequences of being accused of workplace bullying: An exploratory study. M. Jenkins, et al. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2011, 4(1), 33-47.
  Two dilemmas in dealing with workplace bullies - false positives and deliberate deceit. A. Klein & S. Martin. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2011, 4(1), 13-32.
  The “bullied” manager. J.A.A. Montes, A.C.M. Gutierrez & E.M. Campos. International Business and Management, 2011, 4(1), 6-23.
  2009 WBI Labor Day Survey -- (Still) Bullying With Impunity. G. Namie.
   The "bully" within. C. Buon & T. Buon. Counselling at Work, Summer 2007, 5-8.
  The great intimidators. R.M. Kramer. Harvard Business Review, 2006, 1-9.
  Critiques of the anti-bullying movement and responses to them. K. Westhues. Paper presented at the International Conference on Workplace Bullying, Montreal. 2008.


Who Gets Targeted: General Attributes & Special Populations



  Report on Abusive Workplaces, 2003. Workplace Bullying Institute. (see p. 8)
  If you build a remedial voice mechanism, will they come? Determinants of voicing interpersonal mistreatment at work. K. Harlos. Human Relations, 2010, 63(3), 311-329.
  The battered apple: An application of stressor-emotion-control/support theory to teachers' experience of violence and bullying. S. Fox & L. Stallworth. Human Relations, 2010, 63(7), 927-954
  Are immigrants in the nursing industry at increased risk of bullying at work? A one-year follow-up study. A. Hogh, I. Gomes Carneiro, H. Giver & R. Rugulies. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2011, 52, 49–56.
  Workplace mobbing: A discussion for librarians. T.E. Hecker. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 2007, 33(4), 439-445.
  The power of paradigms: A discussion of the absence of bullying research in the context of the university student experience. L. Coleyshaw. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 2010, 15(4), 377-386.
  Tackling work place bullying. J. MacIntosh. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2006, 27(6), 665-679.
  Prevalence and forms of bullying among business professionals: A comparison of two different strategies for measuring bullying. D. Salin. Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland, 2001, 10(4), 425-441.
  Workplace bullying in healthcare. G. Namie. Clinician News, 2005, 9(11), 14-15.


Assessing Impact: Neuroscience & Cellular Biology



  Cumulative adversity and smaller gray matter volume in medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula regions. E.B. Ansell, et al. Biological Psychiatry, 2012.
  Chronic stress causes frontostriatal reorganization and affects decision-making. E. Dias-Ferreira, et al. Science, 2009, 325, 621-625.
  The synchronous neural interactions test as a functional neuromarker for PTSD. A.P. Georgopoulos, et al. Journal of Neural Engineering, 2010, 7, 016011.
  Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. M.H. Immordino-Yang, A. McColl, H. Damasio & A. Damasio. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), April 21, 2009.
  Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. E. S. Epel, E. H. Blackburn & J. Lin, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 2004, 101(49), 17312-17315.
  Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state. M. Wikgren, et al. Biological Psychiatry, 2011.


Impact on People: Stress-Related Physical Harm



Cardiovascular System



  Justice at work and reduced risk of coronary heart disease among employees: The Whitehall II study. M. Kivimaki, J. E. Ferrie, E. Brunner, et al. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2005, 165, 2245-2251.
  Job strain and early artherosclerosis: The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. M. Hintsanen, M. Kivimaki, et al. Psychomatic Medicine, 2005, 67, 740-747.
  Gender difference in the link between depression and cardiovascular disease. T. Naqvi, S. Navqi & C. Mierz. Psychomatic Medicine, 2005, 67(1), S15-S18.
  Clinical depression and regulation of the inflammatory response during acute stress. G. Miller, et al. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2005, 67, 679-687.
  Psychologic distress in postmyocardial infarction patients who have returned to work. C. Brisson, R. Leblanc, et al. Psychomatic Medicine, 2005, 67, 59-63.
  Overcommitment to work is associated with changes in cardiac sympathetic regulation. T. Vrijkotte, L. van Doornen & E. de Geus. Psychomatic Medicine, 2004, 66, 656-663.


Cortisol Studies



  Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state. M. Wikgren, et al. Biological Psychiatry, 2011.
  Chronic stress of workplace bullying and cortisol response. P. Irvin-Lazorko. Medical News Today, 2011.
  Perfectionism and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in men. P.H. Wirtz, et al. Psychomatic Medicine, 2007, 69, 249-255.
  Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health. A.M. Hansen, A. Hogh, & R. Persson. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2011, 70, 19-27.
   Acute threat to the social self: Shame, social self-esteem, and cortisol activity. T. Gruenewald, et al. Psychomatic Medicine, 2004, 66, 915-924.
  Perceived work overload and chronic worrying predict weekend-weekday differences in the cortisol awakening response. W. Schlotz, et al. Psychomatic Medicine, 2004, 66, 207-214.


Sleep Disorders



  Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: Findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population. I. Niedhammer, S. David, S. Degioanni, A. Drummond & P. Philip. Sleep, 2009, 32(9), 1211-1219.
  Workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems - the Helsinki Health Study. T. Lallukka, O. Rahkonen, & E. Lahelma. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 2010.
  Putting work to bed: Stressful experiences on the job and sleep quality. S. Bugard & J. Ailshire. Population Studies Center Research Report 08-652, University of Michigan, 2008.


Assorted Physiological



  Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. E. S. Epel, E. H. Blackburn & J. Lin, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 2004, 101(49), 17312-17315.
  The effect on ambulatory blood pressure of working under favorably and unfavorably perceived supervisors. N. Wager, G. Fieldman, & T. Hussey. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 2003, 60, 468-474.
  Chronic stress causes frontostriatal reorganization and affects decision-making. E. Dias-Ferreira, et al. Science, 2009, 325, 621-625.
  Socioeconomic status is associated with stress hormones. S. Cohen, W. Doyle & A. Baum. Psychomatic Medicine, 2006, 68, 414-420.
  The stressed CNS: When glucocorticoids aggravate inflammation. S. Sorrells, et al. Neuron, 2009, 64, 33-39.
  Does stress at work make you gain weight? A two-year longitudinal study. M. Berset, N.K. Semmer, et al. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 2010.
  Psychosocial aspects of disabling musculoskeletal pain. A-M. Vranceanu, A. Barsky & D. Ring. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 2009, 91, 2014-2018.
  Quality of life and depression in CKD (chronic kidney disease): Improving hope and health. S. Watnick. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2009, 54(3), 399-402.
  Burnout and risk of Type 2 diabetes: A prospective study of apparently healthy employed persons. S. Melamed, A. Shirom, S. Toker & I. Shapira. Psychomatic Medicine, 2006, 68, 863-869.
  Health promotion, risk reduction, and suicide prevention. U.S. Army Report, 2010.
  The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. R.M. Sapolsky, et al. Science, 2005, 308, 648-652.


Impact on Targets: Psychological Harm



  Nightmares, demons and slaves: Exploring the painful metaphors of workplace bullying. P. Lutgen-Sandvik, S.J. Tracy and J.K. Alberts. Management Communication Quarterly, 2006, 20(2), 148-185.
   Intensive remedial identity work: Responses to workplace bullying trauma and stigmatization. P. Lutgen-Sandvik. Organization, 2008, 15(1), 97-119.
  Once, twice or three times as harmful? Ethnic harassment, gender harassment and generalized workplace harassment. J.L. Raver & L.H. Nishii. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, 95(2), 236-254.
  Workplace mobbing: Individual and family health consequences. M. Duffy & L. Sperry. The Family Journal, Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 2007, 15(4), 398-404.
  Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement. M. Dollard & A.B. Bakker. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 2010, 83, 579-599.
  Abusive supervision and family undermining as displaced aggression. J.M. Hoobler & D.J. Brass. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2006, 91(5), 1125-1133.
  Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. M.S. Hershcovis & J. Barling. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010.
  On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes. D. Zapf, C. Knorz & M. Kulla. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 215-237.
  The clinical effects of workplace bullying: A critical look at personality using SEM. M. O'Moore & N. Crowley. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2011, 4(1), 67-83.
  Workplace bullying and mental distress – a prospective study of Norwegian employees. L.B. Finne, S. Knardahl, & B. Lau. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 2011.
  Unacceptable behaviour, health and wellbeing at work. C. A. Sprigg, A. Martin, K. Niven & C.J. Armitage. Institute Occupational Safety & Health (UK), research report 10.1, 2010.
  Emodying emotion P.M. Niedenthal. Science, 2007, 316, 1002-1005.
  Coping with workplace ostracism: The roles of ingratiation and political skill in employee psychological distress. L-Z Wu, et al. Journal of Management Studies, 2011.
  Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: Results from a national study. K. Rospenda, J.A. Richman & C.A. Shannon. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2009, 24, 819-843.
  Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: Prevalence and mental health correlates. J.A. Richman, K.M. Rospenda, & S. Nawyn, et al. American Journal of Public Health, 1999, 89(3), 358-363.
  Sense of Coherence as a protective mechanism among targets of workplace bullying. M.B. Nielsen, S.B. Matthiesen & S. Einarsen. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2008, 13(2), 128-136.
  Interpersonal and systemic aspects of emotional abuse at work: The target's perspective. L. Keashly. Violence and Victims, 2001, 16(3), 233-268.
  Individual and contextual correlates of managers’ attitudes toward depressed employees. A. Martin. Human Resource Management, 2010, 49(4), 647-668.


Impact: PTSD



  Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. R. Janoff-Bulman. Social Cognition, 1996, 7(2), 113-136.
  The synchronous neural interactions test as a functional neuromarker for PTSD. A.P. Georgopoulos, et al. Journal of Neural Engineering, 2010, 7, 016011.
  Mobbing at work and the development of post-traumatic stress disorders. H. Leymann & A. Gustafsson. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 251-275.
  A case study of mobbing and the clinical treatment of mobbing victims. D. Groeblinghoff & M. Becker. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 277-294.
  Bullying: A source of chronic post traumatic stress? N Tehrani. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 2004, 32(3), 357-366.
  Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. S. Matthiesen, & S. Einarsen. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 2004, 32(3), 335-356.
  Basic assumptions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress among victims of bullying at work. E.G. Mikkelsen, & S. Einarsen. Work and Organizational Psychology, 2002, 11(1), 87-111.
  The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported health problems. D. Lauterbach, R. Vora & M. Rakow. Psychomatic Medicine, 2005, 67, 939-947.
  Occupational trauma and metal illness - Combat, peacekeeping, or relief work and the National Co-Morbidity Survey replication. E. Connorton, et al. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2011, 53(12), 1360-1363.
  Personality traits, coping style, and perceived threat as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder after exposure to a terrorist attack: A prospective study. S. Gil & Y. Caspi. Psychomatic Medicine, 2006, 68, 904-909.
  Exposure utilization and completion of cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in a "real world" clinical practice. C. Zayfert, et al. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2005, 18 (6), 637-645.
  Longitudinal studies of PTSD: Overview of findings and methods. T. Peleg & A. Shalev. CNS Spectrums, 2006, 11(8), 589-602.
  Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: An assessment of the evidence. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2008.
  Posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. F. Lamprecht & M. Sack. Psychomatic Medicine, 2002, 64, 222-237.


Loss of Support from Witnesses, Coworkers



  How employers & co-workers respond to workplace bullying: Labor Day 2008 survey. Workplace Bullying Institute
  Ostracism. K.D. Williams. Annual Review of Psychology, 2007, 58, 425-452.
  Coping with workplace ostracism: The roles of ingratiation and political skill in employee psychological distress. L-Z Wu, et al. Journal of Management Studies, 2011.
  The desire to expel unselfish members from the group. C.D. Parks & A.B. Stone. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, 10(2), 99-115.
  To act or not to act: The dilemma faced by sexual harassment observers. L. Bowes-Sperry & A.M. O'Leary-Kelly. Academy of Management Review, 2005, 20(2), 288-306.
  Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. M.H. Immordino-Yang, A. McColl, H. Damasio & A. Damasio. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), April 21, 2009.
  Moral identity and the experience of moral elevation in response to acts of uncommon goodness. K. Aquino, B. McFerran & M. Laven. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, 100(4), 703-718.
  Active and passive accomplices: The communal character of workplace bullying. G. Namie & P. Lutgen-Sandvik. International Journal of Communication, 2010, 4, 343-373.
  The eye of the beholder: Target and witness accounts of adult bullying at work. P. Lutgen-Sanvick, G. Namie, & R. Namie. Unpublished manuscript, 2009.


Impact on Targets: Economic Harm



  Uninsured and dying because of it: Updating the institute of medicine analysis on the impact of unisurance on morality. S. Dorn. Urban Institute January, 2008.
  Perceived job insecurity and worker health in the U.S. S. Burgard, J. Brand & J. House. Populations Studies Center Research Report 08-650, University of Michigan, 2008.
  Worklessness and health -- what do we know about the causal relationship? C. Mclean, C. Carmona, S. Francis, C. Wohlgemuth, & C. Mulvhihill. UK National Health Service Health Development Agency Report, 2005, 1.


Employer Responses / Work Environment Predictors



  Protecting my interests: HRM and targets' coping with workplace bullying. P. D'Cruz & E. Noronha. The Qualitative Report, 2010, 15(3), 507-534.
  The prevalence of destructive leadership behaviour. M.S. Aasland, et al. British Journal of Management, 2010, 21, 438-452.
  The limits to workplace friendship: Managerialist HRM and bystander behaviour in the context of workplace bullying. P. D'Cruz & E. Noronha. Employee Relations, 2011, 33(3), 269-288.
  The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments. A. Padilla, R. Hogan & R.B. Kaiser. The Leadership Quarterly, 2007, 18(3), 176-194.
  HR in the crossfire: An exploration into the role of human reserves and workplace bullying. T. Daniel. Private Research Report, Kentucky State SHRM, 2011.
  How employers & co-workers respond to workplace bullying: Labor Day 2008 survey. Workplace Bullying Institute.
  A preliminary typology of organizational response to allegations of workplace bullying: See no evil, speak no evil. P Ferris. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 2004, 32(3), 389-395.
  Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. S. Einarsen, M.S. Aasland & A. Skogstad. The Leadership Quarterly, 2007, 18(3), 207-216.
  Leadership, working environment and workplace bullying. M. O'Moore & J. Lynch. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 2007, 10(1), 95-117.
  Chaos and the abuse of power: Workplace bullying in organizational and interactional context R. Hodson, V.J. Roscigno & S.H. Lopez. Work and Occupations, 2006, 33(4), 382-416.
  Bullying and harassment at work and their relationships to work environment quality: An exploratory study. S. Einarsen, B.I. Raknes & S.B. Matthiesen. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 1994, 4(4), 381-401.
  Status differentiation and the protean self: A Social-Cognitive model of unethical behavior in organizations. B. Galperin, R.J Bennett & K. Aquino. Journal of Business Ethics, 2011, 98, 407-424.
  Accounts of workplace bullying: The role of the organization. A Liefooghe & K.M. Davey. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2001, 10(4), 375-392.
  Workplace bullying: Causes, consequences, and corrections. P. Lutgen-Sandvik & G. Namie. In Lutgen-Sandvik, P. & Sypher, B.D. (2009) Destructive Organizational Communication, New York: Routledge Press.
  Psychosocial predictors of supervisor-, peer-, subordinate-, and service-provider-targeted aggression. M. Inness, M.M. LeBlanc & J. Barling. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008, 93(6), 1401-1411.
  Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement. M. Dollard & A.B. Bakker. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 2010, 83, 579-599.
  The significance of organizational factors for the incidence of bullying. M. Agervold. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2009, 50(3), 267-276.
  Research report on the dignity at work project. C. Rayner & K. McIvor. University of Portsmouth, Business School. Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK., 2008.
  Aggression at the service delivery interface: Do you see what I see? L. Keashly, J. Neuman. Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, 2008, 14(2), 180-192.
  Association of psychosocial factors and bullying at individual and department levels among naval military personnel. N. Mageroy, B. Lau, T. Riise & B.E. Moen. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2009, 66, 343-351.
  Work as a source of positive emotional experiences and the discourses informing positive assessment. P. Lutgen-Sandvik, et al. Western Journal of Communication, 2011, 75(1).
  Individual and contextual correlates of managers' attitudes toward depressed employees. A. Martin. Human Resource Management, 2010, 49(4), 647-668.
  Employer responses to union organising: Patterns and effects. E. Heery & M. Simms. Human Resource Management Journal, 2010, 20(1), 3-22.
  On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes. D. Zapf, C. Knorz & M. Kulla. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 215-237.
  Anti-bullying advocacy: An unrealized employee assistance opportunity. G. Namie & R. Namie. Journal of Employee Assistance,2003, 33(2), 9-11.


Individual Solutions: Getting Better



   Intensive remedial identity work: Responses to workplace bullying trauma and stigmatization. P. Lutgen-Sandvik. Organization, 2008, 15(1), 97-119.
  Coping with abusive supervision: The neutralizing effects of ingratiation and positive affect on negative employee outcomes. P. Harvey, et al. The Leadership Quarterly, 2007, 18(3), 264-280.
  A case study of mobbing and the clinical treatment of mobbing victims. D. Groeblinghoff & M. Becker. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology, 1996, 5(2), 277-294.
  Protecting my interests: HRM and targets' coping with workplace bullying. P. D'Cruz & E. Noronha. The Qualitative Report, 2010, 15(3), 507-534.
  Self-compassion, self-esteem, and well-being. K.D. Neff. Social and Personality Compass, 2011, 5(1), 1-12.
  Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to oneself. K.D. Neff & R. Vonk. Journal of Personality, 2009, 77(1), 23-50.
  The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself. K.D. Neff. Human Development, 2009, 52, 211-214.
  Exposure utilization and completion of cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in a "real world" clinical practice. C. Zayfert, et al. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2005, 18 (6), 637-645.
  Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: An assessment of the evidence. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2008.


Solutions for Organizations



  Blueprint for a "bullying-free" workplace. G. Namie. The Complete Lawyer, 2008, 4(1).
   U.S. workplace bullying: Some basic considerations and consultation interventions. G. Namie, & R. Namie. Consulting Psychology Journal, 2009, 61(3), 202-219.
  Interventions in workplace bullying: A multilevel approach. N.J. Saam. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2009.
  Empathy in leadership: Appropriate or misplaced? S. Holt & J. Marques. Journal of Business Ethics, 2011.
  Preventing violence and harassment in the workplace. V. Di Martino, H. Hoel & C.L. Cooper. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin, Ireland, 2007.
  Bullying in the workplace: Its impact and management. L. Keashly, J. Neuman. Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal 2004, 8(2), 335-374.
  Employee perceptions of internal conflict management and ADR processes in preventing and resolving incidents of workplace bullying: Ethical challenges for decision-makers in organizations. S. Fox & L.E. Stallworth. Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal of Chicago-Kent College of Law, 2004, 8, 375-405.
  Workplace bullying: Curing the cancer of the American workplace. P.M. Glendinning. Public Personnel Management, 2001, 30(3), 269-286.
  Shame by any other name: Lessons for restorative justice from the principles, traditions and practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. V. Pynchon. Pepperdine Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2005, 5, 299.


International Laws & Regulations



  Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. L.M. Cortina. Academy of Management Review, 2008, 33(1), 55-75.
  Bullying in the workplace: Lessons from the United Kingdom. S. Harthill. Minnesota Journal of International Law, 2007, 17)2), 247-302.
  Organizational measures taken against workplace bullying: The case of Finnish municipalities. D. Salin. Swedish School of Economics & Business Administration, 2006, 521.
  Shortcomings of anti-bullying regulations: The Case of Sweden. H. Hoel & S. Einarsen. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2009.
  First International Law: Sweden. 1994.
  UK Harassment (1997/2001)
  UK Dignity At Work proposal
  Quebec Provincial Labour Standard 81.18 (2004)
  Canada Labour Code: Federal Worker Protection in OHS Violence provisions. 2008.
  Saskatchewan Provincial OHS Regulation. 2007.
  Ontario Bill 168 Anti-Violence (2010)
  Manitoba Workplace Safety and Health Regulation, M.R. 217/2006 (2011)
  Report of the Expert Advisory Group on Workplace Bullying. Health & Safety Authority, 2007.
  France: Social Modernisation (2002)
  South Australia (2005)
  Victoria, Australia - Criminal law, Brodie's Law


Special Issue - 2010
Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal (Vol 32 (1))
The Law of Workplace Bullying
Katherine Lippel, Editor.


  Introduction: The law of workplace bullying - an international overview. K. Lippel. Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal, 2010, 32(1), 1-13.

  The Australian legal framework for workplace bullying. J. Squelch & R. Guthrie, pp. 15-54.

  Psychological harassment legislation in Quebec: The first five years. R. Cox, pp. 55-89.

  Legal protection for victims of workplace harassment in Chile. D.L. Fernandez, pp. 91-108.

  Moral harassment in the workplace: French law and European perspectives. L. Lerouge, pp. 109-152.

  "Mobbing": The German law of bullying. P.S. Fischinger, pp. 153-184.

  The Spanish code of practice on work-related bullying: Reflections on European law and its impact on a national strategy for labor inspectors. Velazquez, pp. 185-224.

  The Swedish ordinance against victimization at workL A critical assessment. H. Hoel & S. Einarsen, pp. 225-249.


U.S. Legal Reform



  Office bully takes one on the nose: Developing law on workplace abuse. J. Habinsky & C.M. Fitzgerald. New York Law Journal, Jan. 21, 2011.
  Workplace bullying in American organizations: The path from recognition to prohibition. T. Daniel. Personal White Paper, 2011.
  Employment discrimination plaintiffs in federal court: From bad to worse? K.M. Clermont & S.J. Schwab. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 2009, 3(1), 103-132.
  The anti-bullying legislative movement: Too quick to quash common law remedies? S. Morris. Bench & Bar of Minnesota, 2008.
  Bullying in the workplace: The newest litigation threat? S. Brutocao, Paper presented to the AHRMA Annual Conference, 2007.


Works by Law Professor David Yamada



His works can be downloaded from the SSRN site.

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