WBI Research & Publications Archive
The Bully-free Workplace: Stop Jerks, Weasels, and Snakes From Killing Your Organization (2011) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Available here .
The Bully At Work: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt and Reclaim Your Dignity On the Job (2000, 2003, 2009) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks. Second edition: Available here.
Research by WBITo date, 50 studies conducted from 2000 to present. Listed in reverse chronology.
2017 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey
Our fourth national scientific survey assessing prevalence of "abusive conduct" in the American workplace: 19% of adult Americans have experienced abuse; 37% (including witnesses) have been affected by it. 63% of Americans now are aware that workplace bullying happens! 77% want a law!! Also gender, race and rank findings. Read the section of the report that most interests you. | Download the complete results.
Are Targets Believed? [2014-F]
This Instant Poll asked 666 bullied targets to tell us whether they were believed or not when describing their experience with bullying. Only 9% were believed and never doubted. A majority, 71%, were never believed. Download the results.
Politicians as Bullies [2014-E]
This Instant Poll asked 307 respondents whether political bullying compares to workplace bullying. A majority, 87%, said it was equally damaging to the individuals targeted. Download the results.
Reversing Emotional Abuse [2014-D]
This Instant Poll asked 820 bullied targets to describe sources of positivity during a negative bullying experience. Family and friends was the most common response followed, sadly, by "no one." Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results.
The Many Ways Workplace Bullying Offends Its Targets [2014-C]
This Instant Poll asked 1,031 respondents to describe the five most offensive aspects of the bullying experience. Interestingly, the group of top items are interrelated. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results.
Intentions of Workplace Bullies [2014-B]
This Instant Poll asked 817 bullied targets to describe the intentions of perpetrators they have experienced. A large majority reported that perpetrators acted with the deliberate personal intention to harm others. Less than 2% saw the bully as "misunderstood." Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results.
Personal Attributes of Bullied Targets at Work [2014-A]
This Instant Poll asked 774 respondents to describe personal attributes of targets. The most popular descriptions were positive. A number of respondents saw an inability to defend themselves and vulnerability as the major personal characteristics. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results.
2014 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey
Our third national scientific survey assessing prevalence of "abusive conduct" in the American workplace: 27% of adult Americans have experienced abuse; 48% (including witnesses) have been affected by it. 72% of Americans now are aware that workplace bullying happens! 93% want a law!! Also gender, race and rank findings. Read the online excerpted report | Download the complete results.
Bullying by Industry [2013-Industry]
This multiple question online survey asked 401 targets of bullying to identify the industry where their bullying happened. The predominantly female sample of respondents reported that healthcare was most common industry followed by education. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-Industry.
Offsetting the Pain from Workplace Bullying [2013-I]
This Instant Poll asked 609 bullied targets to declare what they did to reduce their experienced pain. When the behaviors were categorized, some form of social withdrawal was most prevalent, self-destructive behaviors were second most popular. About one-quarter of targets did react with healthy positive actions. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-IP-I.
Bullied Targets Discover Workplace Bullying [2013-Discovery]
This multiple question online survey asked 562 targets of, and witnesses to, bullying to describe the timing of their recognition of the label for their experiences and its source. The predominantly female sample of respondents reported that the internet was the principal source for discovering what to call their experience. Sadly, few reported receiving or asking for help from others. Results highlighted current deficits in public and employer awareness about bullying at work. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-Discovery.
First-Time Abuser in Bullied Targets' Lives [2013-H]
This Instant Poll asked 800 bullied targets who the first abusive bully was in their lives. Results showed that family members were the initial sources of abuse (44%), followed by work (33%), which came in ahead of being bullied at school (19%). Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-IP-H.
Age of Workplace Bullied Targets [2013-G]
This Instant Poll asked 663 bullied targets how old they were when the bullying at work began. Results showed that the prime productive years were also the prime years for being bullied. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-IP-G.
Protecting Workplace Bullies [2013-F]
This Instant Poll asked 593 bullied targets who protected their bullies. Results showed that 67% of the time higher level managers supported bullies. In only 2% of cases was a bully left unprotected and punished. Read the report in the WBI Blog | Download the results of 2013-IP-F.
Mental Health Professionals' Grasp of Workplace Bullying [2013-E]
This Instant Poll asked 206 bullied targets to rate their psychotherapist's understanding of workplace bullying. Thirty percent of therapists truly understand abusive conduct and its harm, according to bullied targets. However, that leaves 70% who require more education. Read the report in the WBI Blog. | Download the results of 2013-IP-E.
Timing & Results of Targets Confronting Bullies [2013-D]
This Instant Poll asked 554 bullied targets if and when they confronted their bullies. 69% did confront and of those the majority waited until months had passed. Regardless of timing, confrontations rarely stopped the bullying (6% overall). Read the report in the WBI Blog. | Download the results of 2013-IP-D.
Barriers to Targets Leaving Jobs [2013-C]
This Instant Poll asked 713 bullied targets what prevented them from leaving their jobs to escape to safety. Personal economic factors ranked first, but pride and allowing time to pass for events to self-correct were also important. Read the report in the WBI Blog. | Download the results of 2013-IP-C.
Workplace Bullying from the Perspective of U.S. Business Leaders [2013-BL]
WBI commissioned Zogby Analytics to include two workplace bullying relevant questions to their U.S. Business Leaders Survey. In three regions, 315 Owners, CXOs and VPs completed the survey. They shared their opinions about bullying's seriousness and described actions inside their companies. The report is published in two Parts at the WBI blog. Read Part 1 of the report in the WBI Blog. | Read Part 2 of the report in the WBI Blog. | Download a copy of the complete report.
Bullied Targets' Perceptions of Business Leaders [2013-B]
In order to compare opinions about the seriousness of workplace bullying held by executives to those held by bullied targets, a short Instant Poll was conducted with 285 respondents. Similar percentages of each group claimed that leaders had not heard about it. However, targets overwhelmingly thought leaders would consider bullying irrelevant and not serious. Leaders, held the opposite opinions on relevance and seriousness. Results were contrasted in the Business Leaders study above. Read the report in the WBI Blog. | Download the results of 2013-IP-B.
Half of Bullied Targets Forgo Leave: Unpaid Leave A Reality for Many [2013-A]
In the first 2013 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 461 respondents told whether or not they took leave to deal with bullying-related health issues. If they took leave, options were WC, FMLA or Disability insurance. Also asked was whether or not their employer forced the choice. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
How Bullies Select Their Targets [2012-I]
In the ninth 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 655 respondents answered the question about why they believe they were targeted for bullying. The top reasons were factors external to targets and out of their control. A close second were personal strengths that threatened the bullies. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Workplace Bullying Perpetrators' Rank & Numbers [2012-H]
In the eighth 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 81% of the 806 respondents declared that a boss (higher-ranking person than the target) was involved in their bullying. This included bullying together with targets' peers and an occasional subordinate. In 52% of situations, there were multiple perpetrators. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
When & Why U.S. Employers Will Stop Workplace Bullying [2012-G]
In the seventh 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 58% of the 338 respondents believed that employers would eventually stop bullying -- when laws are passed and when they realize the associated costs. The rest think employers never will stop bullying for other reasons. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Is Justice Attainable for Bullied Targets? [2012-F]
In the sixth 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 55% of the 331 respondents reported that the injustice of their bullying experience was never reversed. Those for whom some justice was realized reported the factors accounting for it. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Employers' Attitudes Toward Responsibility to Stop Workplace Bullying [2012-E]
In the fifth 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 88% of the 250 respondents reported that their employers still had taken no action to stop the bullying. Even if the employer knew bullying happens, there was no intention to fix it. Denial was also present. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Impact on Employee Health [2012-D]
In the fourth 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 516 visitors to the site were asked how bullying affected their health. Bullying drove 71% of targets to seek treatment from a physician. Psychological problems included, in rank order: Anxiety (80%), Depression (49%) and PTSD (30%). Many physical stress-related problems were also reported. Suicide was considered by 29%. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
The Aftermath of Contacting HR for Help [2012-C]
In the third 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), visitors to the site were asked how effective HR was at resolving complaints about bullying that specifically did not involve discrimination. 372 respondents shared their insider knowledge, from the customer's perspective. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Employer Bullying Policies [2012-B]
In the second 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), visitors to the site were asked if their employer had specific protections for bullied workers codified into a policy of any name and if the policy was credibly enforced. 311 respondents shared their insider knowledge, from the customer's perspective. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
2012 Strategies Effectiveness Survey
An online survey of 1,598 respondents assessed the effectiveness of a variety of strategies adopted to stop their personal bullying. Briefly, nothing that traditionalists advise targets to try works. Targets alone cannot stop the bullying. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Why Bullying Happens [2012-A]
In the first 2012 WBI Instant Poll (single question), visitors to the site were asked: Why does bullying in the workplace happen? 658 respondents listed causes or reasons for their bullying. Read the description in the WBI Blog. | Download the results.
Compilation of all 2012 Instant Polls, A thru I
Results from 9 online surveys (A-I): Why Bullying Happens/Employer Bullying Policies / Aftermath of Request for Help from HR/Impact on Employee Health / Employers’ Attitudes Toward Responsibility for Solving the Workplace Bullying Problem / Is Justice Attainable for Bullied Targets? / When-Why Will U.S. Employers Stop Workplace Bullying / Perpetrators’ Rank & Number / How Bullies Select Their Targets
Download the 2.2mB pdf report.
Who Supports Bullied Individuals [2011-L]
This Instant Poll asked 528 bullied targets: Who is your greatest supporter? Family members were credited as the prime source of support. Download the results.
Bullied Targets and the Occupy Movement [2011-K]
This Instant Poll asked 230 bullied targets if they support the Occupy movement. 76% of respondents supported the protestors. Download the results.
Bullied Targets Define "Victory" [2011-J]
This Instant Poll asked 317 bullied targets how they define "victory." The results showed bullied targets are waiting for adverse consequences for their bully. Download the results.
Types of Bullies [2011-I]
This Instant Poll asked 942 bullied targets: The Drs. Namie describe different bully types and how to deal with them in their book The Bully at Work. Which type best describes your bully? The Two-Headed Snake was the most common, while the stereotype of a bully - the Screaming Mimi - was actually the rarest form. Download the results.
Workplace Bullying Precludes "Vacations" [2011-H]
This Instant Poll asked 563 bullied targets: How did you use your vacation time? Only 13% report having a relaxing vacation, with the rest either taking no time off, or consumed by their bullying when off work. Download the results.
"Freedom" to Express Oneself as a Bullied Individual [2011-G]
This Instant Poll asked 292 bullied targets: How likely is it that your employer would terminate or punish you for employer-critical statements? The results showed that fear, rather than freedom, prevails. Download the results.
Workplace Bullying and Prior Experiences with Abuse [2011-F]
This Instant Poll asked 246 bullied targets to describe other experiences with abusive relationships. Half of respondentsalso experienced other forms of abuse. Download the results.
Social Media and Workplace Bullying [2011-E]
This Instant Poll asked 201 bullied targets: How do social media and the internet affect your workplace bullying experience? Most respondents indicated a positive impact. Download the results.
Mediation, Arbitration, and Workplace Bullying [2011-D]
This Instant Poll asked 473 bullied targets: If your employer required you to engage in mediation and/or arbitration to address your workplace bullying situation, what was the outcome? In 52% of cases the perpetrator faced zero consequences, while the target lost their job 33% of the time. Download the results.
More Bullying When Bargaining Rights Are Lost [2011-C]
This Instant Poll asked 217 bullied targets: If public-sector unions lose the right to bargain for working conditions, do you expect to see more bullying and abuse in your workplace in the future? Overall 91% said yes. Download the results.
Post-Bullying Financial Woes for Bullied Targets [2011-B]
This Instant Poll asked 241 bullied targets: For those who have ever lost a job to bullying, how did the next job compare financially? About 53% suffered an economic setback, 40% got another job that was free from bullying, but, sadly, one-quarter were unable to replace their lost job. Download the results.
Unions and Workplace Bullying [2011-A]
In the first 2011 WBI Instant Poll (single question), 313 bullied targets were asked: Given the current assaults on workers by employers, what role, if any, do you see for unions to address workplace bullying? About three-quarters of targets still believe that unions have a positive role to play. Download the results.
Compilation of all 12 Instant Polls in 2011, A thru L
Results from 12 online surveys (A through L). Targets & Unions / Post-Bullying Financial Woes / More Bullying, Bargaining Rights / Mediation / Social Media / Prior Abuse Experiences / ”Freedom” to Express / ”Vacations” / Types of Bullies’ Tactics / “Victory” / Occupy / Who Supports Targets
Download a PDF copy of the complete results of all 12 surveys.
2010 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey
The second scientific (nationally representative) survey of its kind in the U.S. 35% of all adult Americans reported either being bullied now or at sometime in their careers! Written by WBI, conducted by Zogby International.See the results
2009 WBI Labor Day Survey -- (Still) Bullying With Impunity
According to 422 respondents to the online survey, only 1.6% of bullies lost their jobs since the recession began. This finding counters the notion that employers use the recession to purge bullies. In fact, 44% of bullied individuals did lose their jobs. Bullies (still) abuse with impunity!Download a PDF copy of the results of this 2009 Survey
2009 WBI Survey of Bullying and the Economic Crisis
Only 22% of the 454 respondents to the online survey said that bullying began after September 2008 (the date recognized as the public acknowledgement of a global economic crisis affecting the American economy). Over a quarter (27.5%) said the bullying worsened. This survey was conducted June, 2009.Download a PDF copy of the results of this 2009 Survey
2008 WBI Surveys of Employer and Co-Worker Responses to Bullying
The dismal truth is that in only 1.7% of cases was the bullying complaint resolved following an investigation targets considered fair; providing safety for the target and justified punishment for the bully. Employers are still "do-nothings."
As for co-worker witnesses, it is a myth that co-workers band together to confront the bully -- that happens in less than 1 in 100 cases! Courage is certainly in short supply.
Two separate studies with a sample size of 400 each.Download a PDF copy of the results of this pair of 2008 Surveys
2007 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey
The first scientific (nationally representative) survey of its kind in the U.S. 37% of all adult Americans reported either being bullied now or at sometime in their careers! Written by WBI, conducted by Zogby International.Read more, follow links to download results
2003 WBI Report on Abusive Workplaces
Data from 1,000 online respondents to a WBI survey in 2003 yielded many of the key findings upon which WBI principles are based. The survey provided the profile of a target (in response to why were you bullied), the top 25 tactics bullies use, and the initial health impact checklist.Download a PDF copy of the results of this 2003 Survey
2000 WBI U.S. Hostile Workplace Survey
Research findings from the online survey by the then-named Campaign Against Workplace Bullying. Results released September, 2000. Based on the then-largest polled collection in the world of people who were directly bullied, N=1,335.Download a PDF copy of the results of the 2000 Survey
Publications by G. Namie & R. Namie
Workplace bullying: Causes, consequences, and corrections. a book chapter by P. Lutgen-Sandvik, G. Namie & R. Namie. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2009. (copy not available)
Workplace bullying: Silent epidemic. by G. Namie & R. Namie, Employee Rights Quarterly, Autumn, 2000.(copy not available)
Book: Namie, G. & Namie, R. (1999) BullyProof Yourself At Work Benicia, CA: DoubleDoc Press. First book (out of print and unavailable)